Trails and Trials in Livestock Research

In this book, Dr Orskov describes the many livestock projects in which he has been involved. He explains how one project leads to another and sometimes the end of a trail cannot be recognized from the beginning of the trail. Initiations of trails and their direction are influenced not only by sound objectives, but also by personalities, technical possibilities, chance observations and talents of students and technical staff. Such dimensions never appear in scientific publications. The research trails therefore have an immense technical and scientific content as well as a human dimension which it is hoped the reader will enjoy.

Trail Index

Trail 1: Protein utilisation and degradation and development of nylon bag technique
1.1 Protein and energy requirement of early weaned lambs
1.2 Protein degradation and development of a new concept of protein nutrition in ruminants
1.3 Microbial N requirement in basal feeds and implications for development of nylon bag technique
1.4 The nylon bag technique as a dynamic tool to study ruminal degradation of nutrients
Trail 2: Using nylon bag technique for rumen environment studies and roughage evaluation
2.1 Feed Interactions
2.2 Upgrading of crop residues
2.3 Differences between cereal varieties in quality of straw
2.4 Crop fractionation
2.5 Prediction of the voluntary straw intake of using the nylon bag technique
Trail 3: Dynamics of rumen outflow
3.1 Rumen outflow rate and its effect on digestibility
Trail 4: In vitro gas production
4.1 Further development of dynamic in vitro gas production technique
Trail 5: Protection of protein from rumen degradation
5.1 The oesophageal groove reflex and postruminal digestion
5.2 Artificial rearing
5.3 Protecting protein from degradation in the rumen
Trail 6: Digestion of glucose starch and sucrose
6.1 Carbohydrate digestion post ruminally
6.2 Carbohydrate fermentation in large intestine and implication for apparent N digestibility
Trail 7: Grain processing
7.1 Soft fat and branched chain fatty acids
7.2 Problems of ruminitis
7.3 Whole loose grain from sheep and goats and implications for feed technology
7.4 Technology for incorporating urea and minerals in whole grain and implications for grain preservation
7.5 Alkali-treated grain for cattle
Trail 8: Volatile fatty acids
8.1 Volatile fatty acid utilisation - Early work
8.2 Development of intragastric nutrition
8.3 Volatile fatty acid utilisation - later work
Trail 9: Host animal protein nutrition
9.1 Protein and effects on fat mobilisations to support growth
9.2 Basal N excretion or minimal protein requirement
9.3 Endogenous N excretion in various segments of the gut
9.4 Effect of fasting on energy and protein metabolism and glucose requirement
9.5 Microbial protein utilisation and optimal amino acid composition for growth and lactation
9.6 Use of urinary purine derivatives produced by nucleic acid degradation for measurement of microbial protein production
9.7 Other trails with intragastric nutrition related to urea recycling, markers for protein status and feed intake
Trail 10: Physiology of lactation
10.1 Effect of protein and glucose on fat mobilisation by dairy cows in early lactation
10.2 Effect of continuous or intermittent infusion of glucose propionic acid or casein on plasma insulin, glucose and propionic acid on milk composition
Trail 11: Livestock in holistic interaction with plant and soil
11.1 Interaction with developing countries
Trail 12: Where now?
Conclusions